Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder due to which brain cells can’t function properly and ultimately dies. it is a neurodegenerative disease. At first, symptoms are mild, but they become more severe over time.it is also a common type of dementia which destroys person’s thinking and memorising ability .it can’t be cured and can be fatal too.
Here are the symptoms causes and risks
⦁ Forgetting important things schedules and places.
⦁ can’t recognize known persons or things.
⦁ getting lost on routes which are familiar before.
⦁ can’t understand safety alerts, awares and indications.
⦁ weak understanding of financial things.
⦁ inability to plan complex or sequential activities.
⦁ inability to use simple tools or equipment.
⦁ loss of decision-making ability and senses.
⦁ speech, spelling, and writing errors.
⦁ unacceptable social behaviours.
⦁ inability to recognize belongings faces.
⦁ alexia occurs which means difficulty in reading texts.
⦁ The most prominent deficits in executive dysfunction would be to do with reasoning, judgment, and problem-solving.
since the real causes of Alzheimer’s disease aren’t completely understood but, basically, these are proteins of the brain that stop functioning. destroyed nerves lose their connections and eventually die. loss of neurons spreads in a somewhat predictable pattern to other regions of the brains. .The damage most often starts in the region of the brain that controls memory, but the process begins years before the first symptoms. By the late stage of the disease, the brain has shrunk significantly and died.
The main role in these diseases is played by two proteins plaques and tangles.
plaques are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease which accumulation between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. The protein fragments produced by the body are called amyloids. Beta-amyloid is a protein fragment snipped from an amyloid precursor protein.
Tangles are formed by hyperphosphorylation of a microtubule-associated protein known as tau, causing it to aggregate, or group, in an insoluble form. The precise mechanism of tangle formation is not completely understood, and it is still controversial whether tangles are a primary causative factor in disease or play a more peripheral role being a variant of the traditional Alzheimer’s disease.
⦁ Genetics: Identifying genetic variants may help researchers find the most effective ways to treat or prevent diseases Alzheimer’s in an individual. This approach, called precision medicine, takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person.
⦁ Age: The greatest known risk factor for Alzheimer’s is increasing age, but Alzheimer’s is not a normal part of ageing. While age increases risk, it is not a direct cause of Alzheimer’s. Most individuals with the disease are 65 and older. After age 65, mostly the risk increases.
⦁ Down syndrome: Advances in function, well-being and life span for people with Down syndrome have revealed an additional health risk: As they age, individuals affected by Down syndrome have a greatly increased risk of developing a type of dementia that’s either the same as or very similar to Alzheimer’s disease.
⦁ Lifestyle: Research has shown that the same risk factors associated with lifestyle may also increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. These include:
⦁ Lack of exercise
⦁ High blood pressure
⦁ High cholesterol
⦁ Smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke
Alzheimer’s disease is not a preventable condition. However, a number of lifestyle risk factors for Alzheimer’s can be modifiedHeart-healthy lifestyle choices that may reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s include the following:
⦁ Exercise regularly.
⦁ Eat a diet of fresh produce, healthy oils and foods low in saturated fat.
⦁ If you smoke, ask your doctor for help to quit smoking.
⦁ Follow treatment guidelines to manage high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol.
Alzheimer’s disease is associated with participating in social events, reading, dancing, playing board games, art, playing an instrument, and other activities that include mental and social engagement.